The two most common forms of scale consist mainly of:

1. Calcium carbonate (CaCO3) and magnesium carbonate (MgCO3) (with binders).
This forms in hot water heaters, boilers, valves, sinks, shower enclosures, etc.

2. Rust (in galvanized pipes) or corrosion (in/on copper, brass, aluminum, or chrome).

The Hydrochanger Water Conditioner’s Impact on High Surface Tension Waters

72.75 mJ/m2, cf. CCl4 26.6 mJ/m2 at 20°C)

Water has an abnormally high surface tension. Water molecules at the liquid-gas surface have lost potential hydrogen bonds directed at the gas phase and are pulled towards the underlying bulk liquid water by the remaining stronger hydrogen bonds [214]. Energy is required to increase the surface area (removing a molecule from a well hydrogen bonded interior bulk water to the lesser hydrogen bonded surface), so it is minimized and held under tension. As the forces between the water molecules are several and relatively large on a per-mass basis, compared to those between most other molecules, the surface tension is large. Lowering the temperature greatly increases the hydrogen bonding causing increased surface tension. If a small drop of water (typically 1 mm diameter) is coated in a fine (typically 20 μm diameter) hydrophobic dust then the drop can roll and bounce without leakage [225], and the aqueous spheres can even float on water. Capillarity holds the dust at the air-liquid interface with the elasticity being due to the high surface tension.

Although there is no clear anomaly in the surface tension/temperature behavior [IAPWS], there are inflection points at about 0°C [865] and 250°C [427]. The inflection in the data at about 0°C has been explained by use of a two-state mixture model involving low-density and higher density water clusters [866].

Surface tension changes differently from bulk water properties due to surface enrichment with clusters that are different from those present in the bulk.

These interfacial water molecules, within 2-3 nm from the surface, have recently been found experimentally to possess a 6% expanded but weaker hydrogen bonded structure [415], due perhaps to less hydrogen bond polarization, itself caused by the missing hydrogen bonds. Atomic force microscopy at air/water interfaces has indicated, however, that this surface polarization causes the presence of nano-sized clusters of water within about 250 nm of the interface [738]. These effects contribute to the ease of ice nucleation within the surface layer [914].The studies also show a monotonic reduction in the dielectric permittivity of water from 80 in the bulk to ~2 at the surface [738b].

There is also an excess of more reactive 'dangling' O-H groups directed away from the surface [594], in an opposite manner to that at water/hydrophobe surfaces. The greater than expected drop in surface tension with temperature increase has been quantitatively explained using spherically symmetrical water clustering [376].

It is interesting to note that surfactants lower the surface tension because they prefer to sit in the surface, attracting the surface water molecules in competition to the bulk water hydrogen bonding and so reducing the net forces away from the surface (i.e. the surface tension).

The affinity of chaotropic ions for the expanded and weakly hydrogen bonded surface water structure (aided by the excess of 'lone pair' electrons directed towards the bulk [594]) may help explain the shallow minima in their surface tension at very low ionic concentrations (i.e. the Jones-Ray effect [674]; first dismissed erroneously as an artifact by Irving Langmuir). For example, at low concentration (< 1 mM) the surface tension of KCl solutions drops (~-0.01% change) with increasing concentration. Higher concentrations of such salts disproportionately increase the bulk salt concentration so adding to the attractive forces on the surface water molecules, consequently increasing the surface tension. Kosmotropic cations and anions prefer to be fully hydrated in the bulk liquid water and so increase the surface tension by the latter mechanism at all concentrations. This partitioning is noticeable in NaCl solutions, such as seawater; the weakly chaotropic Cl- occupying surface sites whereas the weakly kosmotropic Na+ only resides in the bulk water [928]. The polarizability of large chaotropic anions (such as I-) is accentuated due to the asymmetric solvent distribution at the surface and increases the strength of chaotrope-solvent interactions when at the surface [989]. Similarly to chaotropic ions, hydroxyl radicals also prefer to reside at air-water interfaces [939]; the radicals donating one hydrogen bond but accepting less than two [943].The lesser hydration energy of OH- relative to H3O+, results in OH-preferring the surface over the H3O+ ( preferring the bulk) and biases a pure aqueous interface to give it a negative potential [1025].

Higher concentrations (often about 0.1M) of many, but not all, salts prevent the coalescence of small gas bubbles (recently reviewed [672]) in contrast to the expectation from the raised surface tension and reduced surface charge double layer effects (DLVO theory). Higher critical concentrations are required for smaller bubble size [599]. This is the reason behind the foam that is found on the seas (salt water) but not on lakes (fresh water). The salts do not directly follow the Hofmeister effects but the presence of surface active ions (e.g. strong chaotropes or hydrogen ions) tend to negate any effect [622]. The explanation for this unexpected phenomenon is that bubble coalescence entails a reduction in the net gas-liquid surface, which acts as a sufficiently more favorable environment for the one out of a pair of ions rather than the bulk when their concentration is higher than a critical value. It is likely that the ions reside in the interfacial region, between the exterior surface layer and interior bulk water molecules, where the hydrogen bonding is naturally most disrupted [605]. A similar phenomenon is the bubble attachment to microscopic salt particles used in microflotation, where chaotropic anions encourage bubble formation [758].

Therefore, relating the aforementioned discussion back to the mechanisms present in the Hydrochanger Water Conditioner, as water passes through the Hydrochanger Water Conditioner the surfaces are altered due to the molecular changes caused by the pizo surface frictions of the ceramic medias along with the re-dox reactions of the individual intrinsic components of the ceramics themselves. This results in typically expected reductions in water surface tensions that will vary from 6% to 9%.

W. Phoenix Metro Area  Home’s Water @ 400 x Conditioned
W. Phoenix Metro Area Home’s Water @ 400 x Conditioned

Above: Alumina, Silica, and Calcium Sulfate Binders (Cementing Agents) have broken up allowing scale particulates to become smaller.

Same West Phoenix Metro Area Home’s Water @ 400 x Unconditioned
Same West Phoenix Metro Area Home’s Water @ 400 x Unconditioned

Above: Scale formations with binders present are larger and more developed

BIOCERA-SH BALL (Softening Ceramic Ball)

Positive ions in tiny holes of BIOCERA-SH (Softening) Ball are exchanged to other various metals or organic cation(organic positive ion) easily. This function can change Calsium(Ca2+) and Magnesium(Mg2+) to Sodium(Na+) ion and that is widely used in exchanging from hard water to soft water.

Softening Ceramic Ball,which is a ball type being made of Zeolite, has a perfect purifying and ion-exhanging effects and it is possible to apply the ball to many fields because the ceramic is a ball type.


ItemBIOCERA-SH(Softening Ceramic) Ball
ComponentSiO2 Al2O3 Fe2O3 MgO CaO Na2O K2O etc.
Heat resistance(℃)>900℃
pH(5% addition to Water)7.5±0.5
Bulk density(g/㎤)1.15±0.5
FunctionsRemoves harmful heavy metal and decrease Hardness

Functions of the BIOCERA-SH (Softening) Ball

  • Removes harmful heavy metal and impurities.
  • Lowers hardness of water.
  • Changes hard water to soft water.


  • 15kg Carton Box (packed in PE film)